So, let’s see: what is a temple of Christ the Savior? What kind of temple?
To understand this, let us just consider the history of its creation and debunk some myths.
Myth 1. The idea of the temple – the whole merit of the Church
This is the myth of clean water. The idea of the temple belongs to the Russian architect Konstantin Andreyevich Ton (October 26 (November 6), 1794 — January 25 (6 February) 1881): it is proposed to erect a Cathedral in memory of the victory over Napoleon. His idea of Tone reported to the king in November of 1812, when the outcome of the Patriotic war was virtually a foregone conclusion. This idea so impressed the Emperor Alexander 1, that in the day when the last of Napoleon’s soldiers left the territory of Russia (25 December 1812), Emperor Alexander I signed a Manifesto on the Highest building of the Church in Moscow.
So, in relation to creativity of the Russian Orthodox Church to behave somewhat more modest: the idea none of the hierarchs had no relationships.
Myth 2. The temple was constructed on public money – to the penny
Oh, here we touch upon a very spicy theme!
After the signing by the Emperor of the Imperial Manifesto has been 2 years. In 1814 there was held an open international competition with the participation of leading architects of that time – for example, the competition was attended by Quarenghi, Stasov, Voronikhin, and others. Of course, the competition was attended by Konstantin Ton. However, the winner, to everyone’s surprise, the Emperor declared the project of a young (28 years) architect Karl Magnus Vitberg. The surprise (and resentment) has caused and what he Vitberg architect was not. Was outraged and the Church: Vitberg was a Freemason (!) and a Lutheran!
While all agreed that the project Vitberg was truly magnificent!
If modern HHS would be recreated under the project of Vitberg, the temple would be three times larger! Project Vitberg included the Pantheon of dead, the colonnade of 600 columns of captured guns, as well as the monument to Russian monarchs and of the famous generals.
However, the Church hierarchy did not care about the project: the special rage of the hierarchy was just what Vitberg not Orthodox. Therefore, the Church raised a scandal. In order to maintain the project and repay the scandal Vitberg adopted Orthodoxy and has since gone down in history as Alexander Lavrent’evich Vitberg.
The initial project construction, it was decided to conduct on the Sparrow hills. The state has allocated for these purposes are fantastic for those times the sum of 16 million rubles. Received and donations from private individuals: so, the family of Bagration donated for the construction, Denis Davydov, Platov, and many others. Donated and ordinary soldiers, veterans of world war II. However, the total amount of donations received from individuals amounted to less than 100 thousand rubles. Of course, this amount for those times was considerable, however, it was less than 0.5% of the total amount allocated for the construction.
But it is not even that.
In the five-year anniversary of the departure of the French from Moscow, October 12, 1817, in the presence of Emperor Alexander I on the Sparrow hills for the project of Vitberg, was built a Church. The construction was ambitious for her has driven more than 20 thousand serfs. Soon, however, the rate initially decreased sharply, and then and at all became, in modern parlance, the “unfinished.” For the first 7 years failed to even finish (again, in modern terms) “zero cycle”.
The money was stolen with astonishing rapidity. The contractors inflated the price significantly, the mortality rate among construction workers was high, the fortress was often diverted for the construction of foreign objects, building materials stolen.
All this has led to the fact that the first thing that made Nicholas 1, when he ascended the throne in 1825 – stop the construction and appointed a Commission of inquiry, which found terrible things: almost half of the allocated funds were spent, as they say, “inappropriately”! One million rubles was generally trite stolen.
The result Vitberg, many contractors and construction managers were indicted on charges of embezzlement. The trial lasted 8 years. In 1835 “for abusing the trust of the Emperor and damages caused to the Treasury” the defendants were fined a million rubles, and Vitberg was exiled to Vyatka. By the way, so I think: maybe then, and began the practice of cuts and rollbacks?
And only in 1831, without any competition, the Emperor Nicholas 1 person appointed by the architect Konstantin ton and approved the project. This time all the money is allocated exclusively from the Treasury and are spent under strict control.
So, the current temple was built not on the people’s money: it is not necessary “grandmother shaggy”.
Myth 3. The temple was built on a vacant lot and was consecrated
Here we touch one of the most unattractive pages in the history of this ill-fated temple.
Indeed, if the temple was built by the project of Vitberg on the Sparrow hills, really: it was a wasteland. But in 1831 the Emperor Nicholas Pavlovich, furious scandal with the construction of the temple under the project of Vitberg, not only without any competition approved the construction of the temple under the project of Konstantin ton, but in addition chose the place for the temple: on Chertolye (Volkhonka).
Moreover, the process of selection was funny: the Emperor approached the table on which was spread a map of Moscow, looked at her and pointed a finger at the map. To obey the king no one dared. So all the buildings at this place, owned by individuals, were either purchased and public buildings — demolished.
But the piquancy of the situation lay in the fact that the king without looking pointed to the place where it was exactly located… Alekseevsky female monastery: the monument of the XVII century, built in 1518!!!
Did not dare to contradict the king and bishops of the Church: they hastily blessed the project, blessed the destruction (!) monastery, and the Red village!
But the nuns did not forgive the Church, the destruction of a unique monument of antiquity! The Alexis monastery hegumeness cursed the place and predicted that nothing would stand on it for more than 50 years.
By the way, it happened!
Incidentally, when the hierarchs of the ROC curse the Bolsheviks for the destruction of churches, ought on the back and on their case to look. However, this conversation is yet to come. It is important to understand the other: the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was built not on an empty place and were not blessed, and cursed.
Myth 4. The evil Bolsheviks destroyed the temple, like the vandals, in order to destroy the Orthodox faith
It is also a myth, though to expose him hard enough, for there is truth mixed with fiction. But I will try anyway… For this I ask you, fellow citizens to be patient, as there is important history, and therefore required a brief historical background.
As already mentioned, the construction of the temple of Christ the Savior was started again in 1831 and continued for more than 50 years (since it was stopped several times). Completion of construction (that is, the solemn consecration of the temple) took place on 26 may (7 June), 1883, took place in the presence of Emperor Alexander III. I ask you to remember this date – 1883 – for this date is extremely important.
In 1917 in the Russian Empire, there were a total of 79 thousand Orthodox churches. Before the October revolution, all temples and all the parables were held by the Treasury. Tsarist Russia spent on the maintenance of the churches huge sums. After the revolution, initially, relations between the Bolsheviks and the Orthodox Church was normal. Moreover, when in December 1917 was robbed of the Patriarchal Vestry, the Felix Dzerzhinsky took the investigation under his personal control – as a result, in March 1918, 90% of the stolen was returned. However, after the outbreak of Civil war after the antics of Patriarch Tikhon (who, remember, refused to give money to the Bolsheviks for the purchase of bread), there was a separation of Church and state (see “regulations of the people’s Commissariat of justice from 24.08.1918 of the year”). According to this document, signed by the then people’s Commissar of justice of the Kursk, all the churches were returned to believers! That is, there was a separation of Church and state. Emphasize that all temples. That is simply the government absolved itself of the duty to maintain the Church. Including parables.
Then something happened that had to happen. Following the repeal of the criminal code of Imperial Russia 80% of believers have stopped with the Church in all relations. As a result of the cancellation of funding 96% of the clergy corny escaped (by the way, many escaped, taking with him and Church utensils).
Up to 17 years in Russia there were more than half a million priests in the end they have no more than 20 thousand. And not because they were killed by the Bolsheviks: 20 years of the Bolsheviks was shot 28 bishops and 1,200 priests (by the way, none have been executed “for their faith” — it was involved in the conspiracy). I repeat: the bulk of the banal escaped and retrained.
Therefore, there is 79 thousand churches the most banal empty.
That’s why in 1928, Glavnauka audited, the purpose of which was the desire to understand what to do with such a mass of buildings? The result was criteria and all the churches were divided into 4 groups:
The first group of temples, was built before 1613, was declared inviolable and valid;
The second group of temples, built in the period from 1613 to 1725, was declared valid, but “in case of special need” could be reconstructed or redeveloped as a temple of the third group;
Third group: the temples built in the period from 1725 to 1825 declared monuments, have been preserved and restored only the facade, but inside is redeveloped; the Fourth group: the temples built after 1825 to monuments is not included and the state was not guarded. And, if necessary, could either reconstruct the facade, or to communicate.
Further, on June 2, 1931, a meeting of the Politburo of the CPSU(b), which approved the project of reconstruction of Moscow. Under this plan, on the site of the Temple of Christ the Savior was planned to build the Palace of Soviets. Accordingly, on July 13, 1931, a meeting of the Executive Committee of the USSR under the chairmanship of M. I. Kalinin on which the decision was made:
“The place for the construction of the Palace of Soviets to choose the area of the Church of Christ in the mountains. Moscow with the demolition of the temple and the need to expand the area”.
That’s why the temple was demolished.
By the way, the historical truth and that the document signed by Kalinin also was signed by the then Patriarch Sergius…
Now make a small arithmetic calculation. At the time of this decision, the age of the Church was 48 years. Now think, fellow citizens, what is 48? Today this building, erected in 1964. Are you going to protest against the demolition of Khrushchev, built in the time?
I do not condone the Bolsheviks. But it should be understood that at the time this building is actually really no historical values are not represented! And it was approved by Patriarch Sergius.
So, it’s largely the fault lies with the Church and the clergy.
PS. All the above facts are confirmed by documents. according to the materials of the “stranamente” https://странаобщения.рф/Опер/весть/51821 ***
Speaking of the ROC, it must be remembered that:
Systematically for hundreds of years the Russians are deprived of their true history. Told that they say, de true story from the Russian appeared only after Baptism and the forced Christianization of Rus. In fact, it was not so. The progressive development of our party and our ancestors (Rus, Rus) began much earlier, at least 2600-2500 years BC, that is at least 4.5 thousand years to the present day.
1. Orthodoxy is not identical to Christianity. The term “Orthodoxy” wrongly tied only to the Russian Orthodox Church and the Christian religion. Christianity existed long before the baptism of Rus. Slavs and Russians were Orthodox Christians for hundreds of years before applying them in the Judeo-Christian faith. Our ancestors anciently called Orthodox, for they are rightly famous.
2. Actually, true Christianity is not a religious cult. This was the teaching about how the world is and how to properly interact. It was not “prejudice” as he called some of the rituals and spiritual teachings during the Soviet era, when the Church was truly separate from the state. It was not a backward and primitive cult “idolaters”, as we are trying to convince the modern Orthodox Church. Orthodoxy in Russia is truly reliable knowledge about the world.
3. In seven councils of the Christian Church was attended by believers the Holy fathers, and not Orthodox? Substitution of concepts occurred gradually and at the initiative of the fathers the Judeo-Christian Church.
4. The Church in Russia became known as the “Russian Orthodox Church” (ROC) only since 1943, after the relevant Decree of Stalin. Until that time the Church was called the Greek-Catholic Orthodox (Orthodox) Church. Still abroad, the Russian Church called the Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church.